Major curriculum development projects undertaken over the past 20 years have attempted to increase the quantity and quality of science teaching in primary schools. Each project has set out to redress one or more perceived imbalances in the science teaching that was practised. But these efforts have been largely unsuccess- ful in many countries and the use of the many published materials in any fashion is minimal. This paper considers guidelines, derived from the consideration of four criteria relevant to the teaching-learning process, which provide a basis for teacher and curriculum development and implementation through action research. The clinical procedures used .to explore children's concepts in science, viewed as 'alternative frameworks', together with the interactive teaching. Schema developed to take their views into account in science lessons will be reported. Participant teachers' reactions to discovering variability in common con- cepts and language amongst both children and teachers are encouraging since their insights have been a stimulus to working with children on science topics.