Inclusion in the Indonesian context means the participation of minority ethnic and religious groups within the dominant Javanese and Muslim society. The issues of ethnic and religious inclusion are discussed in two case studies: teaching materials in tertiary education and schoolgirls in the secondary school context. The first case study looks into how Minahasan ethnic group and Christian affiliated English lecturers in Manado adapt the content of ELT materials in relation to their multiethnic students with different religious backgrounds. Their awareness of the importance of teaching materials adaptation and better interaction between lecturers and students enhance better understanding of what should be done regarding their students' ethnic and religious backgrounds.The second case study describes ways in which schoolgirls in the Special Region of Yogyakarta Province construct their ethnic and religious identities in a public secondary school. The study focuses on how the girls perceive themselves and others in relation to being Javanese, Chinese, and Malay ethnic girls as well as Muslim and Christian religious girls. This construction of ethno-religious identification influences the schoolgirls' academic achievement.