Learning with Implicit Belief: Structural Model of Implicit Belief of Intelligence, Social Achievement Goals, Academic Achievement Goals and Learning Strategies of Hong Kong University Students

Year: 2012

Author: Li, On-Ki, Leung, Man-Tak

Type of paper: Refereed paper


The purpose of this study is to explore the influences of implicit belief of intelligence on learning strategies through the mediating effects of social achievement goals and academic achievement goals. Convenience sampling was used to collect primary data. A total of 245 participants of university students in Hong Kong were invited to complete a set of questionnaire. It is found that academic achievement goals are significantly associated with implicit belief of intelligence. However, social achievement goals are marginal significantly related with implicit belief of intelligence, but both of them have significant association with learning strategies. There is an indirect effect of implicit belief of intelligence on students' learning strategies through academic achievement goals. Results of structural equation modeling reveal that the proposed model fit the data very well. Besides, it indicates that implicit belief of intelligence has larger effect on academic achievement goals than social achievement goal (β = .32 vs. .16). Since the study has adopted cross-sectional design, it may have limitation in the generalization of result, and be less effective for external validation. However, the main contribution for the present study is that it attempts to confirm the association between implicit belief of intelligence and social achievement goals, and such relationship may not have been examined before. It also provides practical implications to Hong Kong university educators to fully aware the importance of the complex structural relationships among students' implicit belief of intelligence, academic achievement goals, social achievement goals and learning strategies, such that tailored undergraduate curriculum could be implemented to enhance more desirable and quality achievement behaviors and outcomes.