In the last few decades school leadership has been seen as a key driver of education reform. Many countries have initiated reforms to make education responsive to the changing needs of the 21st century. These reforms have both theoretical and empirical implications for school leadership. While there is an established, and continually expanding, research programme on school leadership preparation and development in developed nations - especially the US and England - developing nations, particularly those in Africa, are part of an emerging voice in the discourse. Using a methodology being pioneered by the Educational Leadership Management and Administration (ELMA) research group at the University of Newcastle, this paper reports on ongoing research interrogating the impact of a variety of different school leadership preparation and development programmes in Kenya.