Socio cultural factors affecting girls limited access to school education-in comparison with Pakistan and Iran

Year: 2012

Author: Arai, Keiko

Type of paper: Abstract refereed


 Gender equality in education has been widely recognized as most important issue which has to be solved for improvement of livelihood. It is believed that if girls are educated, society will have big return such as reduce the infant mortality rate, increase income, break away from poor hygienic conditions, control disease and enrolment rate for girls in next generation will be increased.

Since the world declaration of Education for All (EFA), countries have been striving to realize the universalization of primary education as well as to reduce illiteracy. The Dakar Framework indicated that EFA goals could not be achieved without promotion of girls' education, and made a target to eliminate gender disparities in education, and achieve gender equality in education, with a focus on ensuring girls' full access and achievement of basic education of good quality. Many countries made rapid progress by 2012 reaching certain level for enrolment of basic education and now discussions are turning into quality of education rather than access to education.

However, in terms of gender parity in education, situation does not seem to be promoting in South Asia. Researchers have been made to identify factors affecting girls' accessibility to schools but most of them seem to end up by distinctive cultural aspect such as religion or ethnicity.

The study is focused on socio cultural aspect of obstructive to education for girls and two neighboring countries are selected in order to compare the culture. Pakistan is one of the country which still have gender disparity in education even seems to have been increasing since EFA declaration. Iran has almost achieved to certain point and has less gender disparities in education. Both countries have similar culture for girls and women that they must not appear carelessly in the public sphere. Survey was conducted in Pakistan and Iran for parents who has school aged children in order to find out education vector in line with basic culture.

The parents' attitude against girls were basically same in both countries but attitude to value of education was different even parents themselves didn't have educational background.