This paper examines literacy practises in minority education. The theme is an appropriate preface to 1993, Year of Indigenous People, when global research will focus on the position of the, so called, fourth world, populations. Those peoples comprising of the fourth world are struggling to maintain their heritage in form of human rights. The general public has recently been reminded of the political battles in for example Croatia, Lithuania and Kurdistan. The Australian Aborigines share the human rights agenda with the rest of the world's indigenous populations, among which is the indigenous group of Sami of Lapland. The Sami are in a linguistic and political minority in the three Scandinavian countries of Sweden, Norway and Finland. A small percentage of Sami also live in the CIS.