Statistical literacy requires not only mathematical skills and understanding but also the capacity to apply these and interpret findings in context. Hence instruments developed to measure statistical literacy, which rely on context, might not work effectively in crosscultural settings. The performances of students in Hong Kong on a test of statistical literacy were compared with archived data from Australian students. Differences in the order of item difficulty between the two groups shed light on the impact of the different cultural settings. Equating and calibrating data from both groups in a single analysis provided indicated that the same construct was being measured across the two cultural settings. Finally, DIF analysis indicated items that functioned differently in the two settings.