This paper reports several studies investigating the relationships among approaches to learning (Deep, Surface, Achieving) and performance in learning in a vocational context. In one aviation study, trainee pilots constituted the sample. Results showed negative relationships between a surface approach and learning of ground school topics. Hours-to-solo was negatively related to deep approach scores. In another study of experienced pilots, only the deep approach related significantly to learning outcomes. A third study reports interview data from experienced airline transport pilots. A fourth study developing new approaches to learning scales for experienced pilots is discussed.