Development of a Rasch model scale to measure student information and communication technology learning self-reported outcomes, behaviours and attitudes

The study applied the Rasch model to construct an ordinal and interval-level scale to measure student use and attitudes towards information and communication technology (ICT). Scale development was based upon a hypothesised model comprising ICT educational outcomes and behaviours and attitudes towards ICT (in-school and out-of-school). Specifically, the study aimed to produce a scale that measured student self-reported outcomes, behaviours and attitudes towards use of ICT; calibrated item difficulties and self-reported outcomes, behaviours and attitudes towards ICT measures on the same scale; and elicited data to fit the theoretical model.

The model was applied to develop a 126 item Likert scale type instrument with items organised into three sections. The educational outcomes section comprised items on self-regulation, productivity, incentivisation and ICT-efficacy. The in-school section comprised items on independent learning, problem solving, creativity, meta-cognition, peer support, peer caring, virtual relationships, student centred teaching, teacher caring, group collaboration, instructional design, teacher-student negotiation, school intranet use, and Internet use. The out-of-school section comprised items on parental involvement in ICT learning, the home ICT environment, and website associations.

Rasch model analysis of data from a sample of upper primary and secondary school students (N = 440) was applied in scale refinement and model validation.