The development of a schema for learning and teaching based on a reconsideration of learning outcomes and learning conditions

Year: 1999

Author: Holliday, Royce

Type of paper: Abstract refereed

The paper reports on the development of an innovative schema for planning learning and teaching. It is one which can guide the planning, conduct and evaluation of learning undertaken by students at school and university levels. It can guide the planning, conduct and evaluation of teacher professional learning programs.

The paper describes how notions of learning outcomes and learning conditions have been reconsidered and redefined in the light of research into how teachers and university students say they best learn.

The schema requires three types of learning outcomes to be considered: 1) Learning To Be outcomes, 2) Learning About outcomes, and 3) Learning To Do outcomes, the most important being the first. It is also recognises the importance of five synergetically related conditions of learning: 1) Self-affirmation, 2) Personal Meaning, 3) Authentic Action, 4) Collaboration, and 5) Empowerment and relates these conditions to the outcomes. The schema uses an "entry point" procedure, which shows how the constellation of learning conditions can be entered one at a time, although all needing to work together in order to achieve Learning To Be outcomes.