This paper will report on a study funded by the Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. The study was designed to identify the orientations which adults - teachers and parents - have to the participation of young people in physical activity; to identify their understandings of the relationship between physical activity and health; to explore the ways in which they see themselves as influencing the participation patterns of children and to identify how all of these might be different for different groups of parents and different groups of children. Four groups of researchers, each from a different State, collaborated on the project which provided the means to target a diverse population including Aboriginal communities, parents and teachers in rural and isolated schools, ethnically diverse schools, inner city schools, community schools and urban comprehensive schools. The results of the study will be used to inform a prototype physical activity and health education advocacy policy. This paper will report on the findings of interviews and surveys carried out in case study schools.