A shift in component relationships in the skill of two hand striking of nine year old children: An exploration of product and process

Year: 1997

Author: Sprinkle, Judith, Vine, Ken

Type of paper: Abstract refereed

The research is concerned with examining the adjustments nine year old children make when the size of the ball or the length of the bat is varied for the two hand strike, and the effects of those adjustments on outcomes. Additionally, the effects on both process and outcome of varying task goals are examined. The performances of forty five children striking a ball of varying sizes within a changing but tightly controlled task environment and the relationship of the components of the skill were investigated. The product of the skill was measured in distance and accuracy. Also, performances were video analysed to detect dynamic changes in component production and integration, and these changes were related to variations in task demands. From the video recordings, component production and integration was assessed using an ordinal scale and the resultant data analysed using ACER's implementation of the RASCH Latent Trait Scaling model. The interval level scores derived from application of the RASCH model, together with the distance and accuracy measurements, were analysed using MANOVA techniques to detect group differences. This paper extends current theories and empirical evidence by presenting performance models which illustrate various facets of adjustments to a changing task environment, and by describing the diversity of the adjustments and their implications for professional practice in physical education and sport science.