This paper will address issues arising from a series of studies investigating the knowledge and beliefs of pre-service teachers about learning and teaching and about the self-regulation of learning (SRL). In examining beliefs about SRL we used the Beliefs about Learning and Teaching (BALT) questionnaire designed by the group. This questionnaire investigated beliefs consistent with SRL as well as beliefs that are not consistent with that view of learning, thus allowing us to examine the cohesion of the pre-service teachers’ belief systems. The results showed that although the great majority of the participants agreed with statements indicating beliefs consistent with SRL, they also expressed agreement with items expressing beliefs inconsistent with SRL. Structural equation modelling revealed that beliefs inconsistent with SRL were negative predictors of the pre-service teachers’ use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies and academic achievement. Many pre-service teachers did not show detailed knowledge about important learning strategies. The paper addresses implications of these findings for the promotion of SRL in classrooms and for the programs preparing pre-service teachers to take up the challenge of explicit promotion of students’ use of SRL strategies during lessons.