In recent years, as China has been growing and changing, researching the modern value of Chinese history is becoming more and more popular. This thesis is focused on the traditional enlightenment education of ancient China and learns its worth in today’s modern society. It’s well known that ancient China has created splendid civilization for the human, especially in the field of education. Nowadays, we could still benefit from the enlightenment education of ancient China, such as the education mode, the content and language style of the textbook, the teaching method, etc. These perspectives are the three research aspects here. In the first place, family and old-style private school played a significant role in the traditional enlightenment education. The education mode there has unique effects compared with new-style school. We should study it from some famous historical figures’ diaries and works, such as Jia Yi in Han Dynasty, Yan Zhitui in the South and North Dynasty, Chu Hsi in Song Dynasty, Wang Yangming in Ming Dynasty, and Yan Yuan in Qing Dynasty. In the second place, the abundant enlightenment textbooks in ancient China are rich resources for modern preschool education, just like The Children’s knowledge Treasury, Three-Character Primer, and Thousand-Character Classic. Above all, the content and expression in these classics are pretty suitable for children. In the last, the experience of teaching methods, which would be found from some historical cases, may give us many ideas to adjust the teachers’ actions today.The study achievements will undoubtedly be valuable for the development of our preschool education, either for China or the world. In other words, children are the greatest beneficiaries, because the findings of this research, which is a part of Chinese traditionally culture, may have fascinating functions with the irreplaceable worth in comparison to some current misleading trends.